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In either approach, the resulting nanoparticles are characterized using various techniques to determine properties such as particle size, size distribution, shape, and surface area. This is of particular importance if the properties of nanoparticles need to be homogeneous for a particular application. In the case of chemical and biological synthesis of nanoparticles, the aqueous metal ion precursors from metal salts are reduced and as a result a colour change occurs in the reaction mixture. This is the first qualitative indication that nanoparticles are being formed. One interesting property of colloidal particles in solution, due to their size and shape, is their ability to be seen when a laser beam passes through the colloidal solution. This effect is known as the tyndall effect and is a simple and straightforward technique that can be used to detect the presence of nanoparticles in solution. After the reaction, nanoparticles can be separated from the colloid by high speed centrifugation and then examined using advanced nanocharacterization techniques. Some of the spectroscopy and microscopy techniques routinely used include uv-visible spectroscopy (uv-vis dynamic light scattering (dls atomic force microscopy (afm transmission electron microscopy (tem scanning electron microscopy (sem energy dispersive spectroscopy (eds powder X-ray diffraction (xrd fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ft-ir and Raman spectroscopy. Microscopy based techniques such as afm, sem and tem are considered direct methods of obtaining data from images taken of the nanoparticles.
Synthesising nanoparticles via biological entities acting as biological factories offers a clean, nontoxic and lifting environment-friendly method of synthesizing nanoparticles with a wide range of sizes, shapes, compositions, and physicochemical properties. Another interesting feature of many biological entities is their ability to act as templates in the synthesis, assembly and organisation of nanometre scale materials to fabricate well-defined micro and macro scale structures. For example, viruses have been used to assemble gold and iron oxide nanoparticles to form microstructures 66, bacteriophages have also been used to form intricate nanometre and micrometre scale structures 67, 68, 69 and phage based assemblies of liposomes have been used in targeted drug. Comparing the above-mentioned biological identities and their potential to become efficient biological factories, synthesizing nanoparticles via plants, is a relatively straight forward and advantageous approach 74,. In comparison with microorganisms, the plant approach is more advantageous since it does not need any special, complex, and multi-step procedures such as isolation, culture preparation, and culture maintenance. Furthermore, synthesis in plants tends to be faster than microorganisms, is more cost-effective and is relatively easy to scale up for the production of large quantities of nanoparticles 74, 76, 77, 78,.
The aim of this review is to present a brief overview of the techniques used to characterise nanoparticles, microbial routes for synthesising metal and metal oxide nanoparticles, use of plants extracts for synthesis of nanoparticles, factors influencing the synthesis process, possible mechanisms involved in nanoparticle. Characterisation Techniques to date, there are numerous techniques for synthesizing nanoparticles. However, these techniques fall into two broad approaches and can be defined as either a top down approach or a bottom up approach 80, 81,. The top down approach starts with a material of interest, which then undergoes size reduction via physical and chemical processes to produce nanoparticles. Importantly, nanoparticles are highly dependent on their size, shape, and surface structure and processing tends to introduce surface imperfections. These surface imperfections can significantly impact on the overall nanoparticle surface physicochemical properties. In the bottom up approach, nanoparticles are built from atoms, molecules and smaller particles/monomers 84, 85,.
While the chemical approach uses techniques such as: chemical reduction, electrochemistry, and photochemical reduction 36, 37, 38, 39,. Studies have shown that during the synthesis process, size, shape, stability, and physicochemical properties of the nanoparticles are strongly influenced by a variety of factors. These factors include process parameters (temperature, concentrations, etc. process kinetics involving the interplay between the metal ion precursors and the reducing agent, and adsorption kinetics involving the stabilizing agent and the nanoparticles 41,. Consequently, designing a process that effectively controls the size, shape, stability, and physicochemical properties is currently at the forefront of research into nanoparticle synthesis 43,.
Conventional synthesis of nanoparticles can involve expensive chemical and physical processes that often use toxic materials with potential hazards such as environmental toxicity, cytotoxicity, and carcinogenicity. The toxicity problems arise from the hazardous substances, such as organic solvents, reducing agents, and stabilizers that are used to prevent unwanted agglomeration of the colloids. In addition, some nanoparticles have also been found to be toxic due to factors such as composition, size, shape, and surface chemistry. As a result, the presence of these toxic formation agents on the synthesized nanoparticles and potentially the nanoparticles themselves has prevented their clinical and biomedical application. Importantly, all these factors can be potentially controlled via biological mediated production. As a result, there is currently widespread interest in developing clean, reliable, biologically compatible, benign, and environment-friendly green processes to synthesize nanoparticles 44,. In recent years, biological synthesis has emerged as an attractive alternative to traditional synthesis methods for producing nanoparticles. Biosynthesis involves using an environment-friendly green chemistry based approach that employs unicellular and multicellular biological entities such as actinomycetes 47, 48, bacteria 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, fungus 54, 55, 56, 57, plants 58, 59, viruses 60, 61, and yeast 62, 63,.
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For example, metallic nanoparticles of noble metals such as gold, silver, platinum, and palladium have been widely used in products ranging from cosmetic to medical and pharmaceuticals. Gold nanoparticles have been extensively used in biomedical applications 8, 9, 10, separation sciences 11, disease diagnostics 12, and pharmaceuticals 13,. Silver nanoparticles have been found to possess both anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory properties that can promote faster wound healing. Because of these advantageous properties, silver nanoparticles have been integrated into commercially available wound dressings, pharmaceutical preparations, and medical implant coatings 15, 16, 17, 18, 19,. Platinum nanoparticles have been widely used in biomedical applications in either pure form or alloyed with other nanoparticles 21 and palladium nanoparticles in catalysis and electro-catalysis applications 22, 23, what's 24, chemical sensors 25, optoelectronics 26, and anti-bacterial applications. In addition, non-noble metallic nanoparticles such as iron 28, 29, copper 30, zinc oxide 31, and selenium 32 have also been used in medical treatments, cosmetic formulations, and anti-bacterial applications. Due to the increased demand for various metallic and non-metallic nanoparticles over the past two decades, a wide range of physical and chemical techniques have been developed to produce nanoparticles of different sizes, shapes, and compositions. Traditionally, nanoparticles have been synthesized and stabilised via physical and chemical techniques. The physical approach includes techniques such as laser ablation 33, lithography 34 and high-energy irradiation.
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The aim of this review is to provide an overview of recent trends in synthesizing nanoparticles via biological entities and their potential applications. Keywords: green chemistry; biological synthesis; nanoparticles. Introduction, in recent years, the convergence of nanometre australian size scale technologies and biological technologies has created the new field of nanobiotechnology. This relatively new field is focused on the creation, manipulation, and use of materials at the nanometre scale for advanced biotechnology. At the forefront of this field is the synthesis of nanometre size scale particles via biological entities. Nanoparticles are of great interest due to their novel physicochemical, magnetic, and optoelectronic properties that are governed by their size, shape, and size distribution 2, 3, 4, 5,. It is predominantly the nanoparticles extremely small size and large surface area to volume ratio that leads to the significant differences in properties (e.g., biological, catalytic activity, mechanical properties, melting point optical absorption, thermal and electrical conductivity) not seen in the same material at larger. Because of these unique physicochemical and optoelectronic properties, nanoparticles are of particular interest for a number of applications ranging from as catalysts, chemical sensors, electronic components, medical diagnostic imaging, pharmaceutical products, and medical treatment protocols.
Open Access This article is freely available re-usable, review, green Synthesis of Metallic Nanoparticles via biological Entities. Monaliben Shah 1, derek fawcett 1, Shashi Sharma 2, suraj Kumar Tripathy 3 and Gérrard Eddy jai poinern 1 1, murdoch Applied Nanotechnology research Group, faculty of Minerals and Energy, school of Engineering and Energy, murdoch University, murdoch wa 6150, australia 2, biosecurity and food. Received: / Accepted: / Published: Abstract : Nanotechnology is the creation, manipulation and use of materials at the nanometre size scale (1 to 100 nm). At this size scale there are significant differences in many material properties that are normally not seen in the same materials at larger scales. Although nanoscale materials can be produced using a variety of traditional physical and chemical processes, it is now possible to biologically synthesize materials via environment-friendly green chemistry based techniques. In recent years, the convergence between nanotechnology and biology has created the new field of nanobiotechnology that incorporates the use of biological entities such as actinomycetes algae, bacteria, fungi, viruses, yeasts, and plants in a number of biochemical and biophysical processes. The biological synthesis via nanobiotechnology processes have a significant potential to boost nanoparticles production without the use of harsh, toxic, vitamin and expensive chemicals commonly used in conventional physical and chemical processes.
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